Plant Heritage at Borde Hill Gardens

The sun shone on our first national Plant Heritage event this year, held at Borde Hill Gardens, near Haywards Heath in Sussex, described as  ‘One of the country’s truly great gardens’ by Country Life magazine. Huge thanks to the generous Eleni Stephenson-Clarke of Borde Hill Gardens, our hostess, to our Sussex Group committee, and for the support from NFU Mutual and Griffin Glasshouses .  It was simply lovely to see our members and their guests from across the country meeting up again, and to meet new members as well.IMG_5484

IMG_5360Head Gardener, Andy Stevens, led the garden tour showing some of the hidden areas of this beautiful and historic garden.  At Borde Hill it’s worth taking the time to explore all the paths, and secluded corners to find unusual gems, and different vistas.  Indeed looking into the distance it is just possible to see the Ouse Valley viaduct.

IMG_5471Guests also had the opportunity of a fascinating house tour before a delicious lunch.  Roy Lancaster spoke passionately about plant hunting,  how this has always been important to him, illustrating his talk with selected unusual plants.

To end the day there was a formal planting ceremony of an Acer sinense donated by the International Dendrology Society. The ground prepared by Andy, the Head Gardener,  the planting completed by Jim Gardiner, overseen by Roy Lancaster and John Stevenson-Clarke.

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Our thanks go to all those Collection holders and specialist nurseries who very kindly donated such interesting plants for our auction, and to all donations from the Sussex area.  See pictures below, as well as Sarah Quarterman helping to set up the auction. We hope the winners are enjoying their new plants.

A couple of trees spotted at Borde Hill:

Magnolia obovata

Magnolia obovata

Liriodendron chinensis   Chinese Tulip Tree

Liriodendron chinensis Chinese Tulip Tree

Our next national event is at Dutton Hall, near Ribchester, Lancashire on Wednesday 17 June; followed by our autumn event at Bodenham Arboretum, Kidderminster, Worcestershire on Saturday 3rd October 2015.  Please ring 01483 447540 for tickets.

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Mighty oaks from little acorns grow

The children of Wicor primary school in Hampshire are Plant Guardians for Canna ‘Chou Chou’, presented to them by James Wong at Hampton court Palace Flower Show last year and as such they are eligible to attend our educational workshops.  Last year we also worked with the RHS seed department who offered to put on a session for us on seed collection and storage and Wicor school jumped at the chance of attending.

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Louise, Amais, Archie, Dylan, Grace, Amanda

Archie, Dylan, Grace and Amais arrived with Louis and Amanda and were met by Heather and Lucy of the RHS seed team and taken to their HQ in the heart of the garden.  Lucy had laid out a selection of different seeds, including the giant cone of  Pinus coulteri  also known as the widow maker due to the drastic consequences of one falling on your head.

IMG_6271Other gentler ways of seed dispersal were discussed; sticky burrs which catch on animal fur, berries eaten by birds, cyclamen seed taken by ants to their nests, and  explosive capsules such as Geranium and Alstroemeria.

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Examining the poppy ‘pepper pot’ mechanism for seed dispersal

It was a perfect day to collect seeds – dry and sunny.

Packing the kit bag

Packing the kit bag

Wearing gloves the children collected seeds of the winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) into plastic bags recording the name, date and location onto a tag which will stay with the seeds as their unique identifier.

Down to the beds around the glasshouse to collect seeds of  Trachycarpus fortunei

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and into the Arid Zone where a large seed head of Puya mirabilis produced an avalanche of tiny seeds

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and again the seeds are labelled.

Back at the office, the children were shown how to deal with berries which are kept in the fridge over the winter to break up the flesh.IMG_6382

Once the seeds have been cleaned using sieves of different sizes and grades

and dried if necessary in drying racks,

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they are stored in a cold store

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before being packed and despatched to members, or used in propagation in the garden.

If you have ever collected seed yourself you will know that a lot of puff is needed to get rid of the chaff – the team here at Wisley use an aspirator which does the job by blowing the lighter material up a central tube retaining the heavier seeds in the capsule at the bottom.

Before leaving the children were given some seeds for the school garden.

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The afternoon group was a little more mature, with gardeners from Exeter University, (NC of Azara) Collection holders of Geranium and Albuca and a Plant Guardian.

In response to a question on viability Heather explained that seeds are generally kept for three years.  They are only taken when ripe from a variety of healthy plants.  The efficient cleaning removes as many pests as possible and then storage in dry, dark, cool (10 degrees) conditions maintains the dormancy.

The RHS have started doing some germination tests trying to replicate normal members’ conditions. Seeds such as Acantholimon which only stays viable for a few weeks have been taken off the list  and many plants in the Tropical Zone have recalcitrant seeds –  oily – so they can’t be dried out, so they aren’t offered.  Some seed is better sown fresh , but can be put into dormancy which then needs to be broken with periods of cold.

Some of the sorting is still done by hand, using blotting paper, tweezers and magnifying glass.  Comparison trays are used as a final check.  The online Seed Site was suggested by one of the participants as a useful resource.

The RHS is part of Index Seminum which offers seeds to botanical institutions in UK and EU but seed is not sent outside this area because of the stringent requirements for cleanliness and the  need for a phytosanitary certificate.

At the end of the seed despatch period the team do a stock check to see what is popular –   anything marked with a red spot.  Cut flowers are very popular at the moment and they ran out of Cosmos and Erodium and Thalictrum.  The residual seeds are given to fundraising groups, including Plant Heritage’s Seed Shop at Hampton Court Palace Flower Show.

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Thank you Heather and Lucy – two workshops in a day is a tall order, and I am sure that the children in particular will be inspired to pass on their knowledge at school and see what they can collect from their own garden.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Shy bairns get nowt

A snowdrop being offered in the Plant Exchange.
Sure to be oversubscribed.
But you never know, everyone might think that.

So went my thought process this time last year when I was delving into the list of offers.  In the past I’ve had geraniums, asters and daylilies from the Exchange and I regularly offer a dahlia salvaged from Tatton Park by a PH member.  But a snowdrop?

IMG_5999But I was lucky and this is that snowdrop, photographed last week, received by me last May at the national AGM – thank you Dorset member who donated it to the Exchange.  It is Galanthus plicatus ‘Trymposter’, which according to ‘A gardener’s guide to Snowdrops’ by Freda Cox is a

‘vigorous, shorter seedling of G. ‘Trym’, beautifully shaped flowers, erect scape.  Leaves erect, broad, grey-blue.  Outer segments wide, paddle shaped, splayed, inverted green ‘V’ at the apex.  Inner segments shorter, upright, inverted green ‘V’ at apex.  RHS Preliminary Commendation 2011.  Height 16cm.’

The parent G. ‘Trym’ (found in Jane Gibb’s garden, Westbury on Trym, Bristol c 1987 and named by Chris Brickell) is described in ‘Snowdrops’ by Matt Bishop et al. thus;

‘as the flowers open, the segments of the outer whorl reflex to resemble the eaves of a Chinese Pagoda.  For 20 years this flower type gave the plant a unique position in the genus and a cult reputation among galanthophiles.  Only slightly diminished by the appearance of recent hybrids such as ‘Green of Hearts’ ‘Trumps’ and ‘South Hayes’.  ‘Trym’ is known to pass on its main characteristics to at least a proportion of its seedlings, so there is every reason to suspect that it is an ancestor of the above.

And this is G. ‘Trumps’ acquired from Matt Bishop himself a couple of years ago at Myddelton House and I am registered under the Plant Guardian scheme for this cultivar.

IMG_1842 Galanthus plicatus 'Trumps' cfor blog (640x426)

So if it lives up to its reputation, look out for G. ‘Trymposter’ in the Plant Exchange in a couple of years time when it has bulked up.

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In the meantime, have a look at the Plant Exchange list, on our website, or usually available at local group meetings, and see what gems you can request.  Bids for plants must be with your local coordinator by the end of February.

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Reading at Reading

Thank you MSc Plant Diversity at Reading, Global Plant Biodiversity and Conservation module, for giving UK & Irish threatened garden cultivars a hearing on Friday.

These snaps are from our late morning session, investigating Fuchsia cultivars threatened in cultivation – starting with Reading Herbarium specimens, of course. Hello @RNGherb !

And what were we reading? Typing, print, handwriting, websites, and of course photographs, drawings and real (if dead) plants. Ah, a variety of sources.

comparing sources

Alastair, Michael and Jordan on the Plant Finder 2014 and herbarium specimens from the 1970s&80s

Excitingly (aren’t we modern), Sara (not pictured) and Jan were (only for the second time) remoting in to the class via Skype. They were very much part of the team, simultaneously checking UK nursery website descriptions from the only remaining supplier, Clay Lane Nursery, and the International Cultivar Registration Authority’s notes from America against the threatened list online.

students via Skype

keeping an eye on each other

RHS colour chart pinks

Toral and Phoebe doing a quick fan dance with RHS colour charts (Sara, on screen) after we’d all been comparing colour descriptions for some time

So what happened?

First uncovered was Fuchsia boliviana var. puberulenta cultivar ‘Alba’. Not in either list: was it an even rarer unknown cultivar? The name made me nervous, as so many “alba”s become demoted to varieties rather than cultivars. But as someone pointed out, it was already a variety, the alba couldn’t be a variety too? We checked the RHS horticultural database online: 5 answers for the search on keywords fuchsia+boliviana+alba. It was a synonym; now the white Bolivian fuchsia is indeed a variety. What was interesting was the last record returned – one of its parents was a cultivar which seemed to be the opposite cross of another specimen revealed in the lab (working through all the species and subspecies names). Thank goodness people don’t commonly swap sexes and have another child!

We looked up a cultivar ‘Versicolor’ – again, some different versions of the name, but not threatened.

We found ‘Mary’, with arrestingly intense red flowers, despite being made more than 25 years ago. It was not one of the numerous Mary Somethings on the threatened list, but it was on the long list as not threatened. Nothing to worry about? However, our remote students reported the ICRA listed it as white/pale pink flowers and bred/registered in 1997. Was ours an original, extinct ‘Mary’ whose name had since been reused? More than one person believed it had really been Mary Something mis-transcribed. Or, someone else suggested, had different ones been independently named in the UK and America? There shouldn’t be by now… I’ve just checked the RHS and their photo looks like the Reading specimen. Not threatened – it’s even got an Award of Garden Merit. It’s also interesting that we’ve got many on the UK “all known” list, even just in the Marys, that haven’t made it into the ICRA database yet. Hmm.

looking at a herbarium specimen

‘Mary’, Phoebe and Toral

‘Deben Petite’ provided another mystery. Currently Threatened in cultivation, its UK breeder was in no doubt, although the spelling and date varied between sources. And the mounted specimen had a disclaimer…

plant identity in doubt

Or is it?

I had brought Wagtails Book of Fuchsias from the Plant Heritage bookshelf (our office is the size of a portakabin, so I hesitate to call it a library) These friendly volumes were hand-drawn and written by the nursery over many years of devotion. One of the students found both ‘Deben Petite’ and three different renditions of F. paniculata to compare.

description of cultivar in book

Fig. 1,019. “Easy to grow, but can outgrow its welcome in a small greenhouse”

I hope everyone enjoyed their glimpse of the project and the idea of cultivar conservation! Don’t forget Threatened Plants are now on Twitter as @SaveTheCvs

university teddybears

The only silent ones today

And just think, back in 1771 there was only one fuchsia species known…

but one species

but one species


from
Millers, MDCCLXXI

Millers, MDCCLXXI, from the Reading herbarium

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Autumn colours from across the Pond

Tucked between the busy M25 and A3 motorways in Surrey, Painshill Park was created in the 18th century by the Hon. Charles Hamilton, as a fine example of naturalistic landscape.
Hamilton was among the first plant enthusiasts to introduce new species and hybrids from the USA, some of which are still present at Painshill today. He obtained many of his plants from renowned American nurseryman John Bartram (Pennsylvania).

John Bartram Collection (c)

The Gardens were restored in the 1980s using 18th century plans and illustrations, and John Bartram’s plants have been carefully researched and added to the garden since then. The Collection was awarded full status in 2006, and displays over 100 taxa of North American plants. Here are just a few which were beginning to show their autumn colours last month:

In addition to these rather interesting plants, there are information panels explaining how plants and seeds were transported during long boat journeys, and there’s even a replica of John Bartram’s potting shed:

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The collection is held in a walled garden at the entrance of Painshill Park, with various vegetable crops grown in the centre. Look at those cloches…

Cloches

And of course, what better suited to the settings than a pumpkin theatre:

Pumpkins

Painshill Park’s head gardener for more than 10 years and passionate researcher Kath Clark sadly died last year, but it is great to see that her work lives on!
The garden can be visited all year round, see http://www.painshill.co.uk/visit-painshill/opening-admission/

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Plants for the future workshop with the RHS

A great account of the “Plants for the future” workshop which was held last week at RHS Wisley Garden. Many Collection Holders were present (Roger Parsons Sweet Peas, Claire Austin Hardy Plants, Hoyland Agapanthus and Tulbaghia, Plantagogo heucheras..) and the essential role of National Collections as source of genetic material for plant breeding was discussed.

Michael Perry - Mr Plant Geek

I was really excited to be invited to a special workshop at RHS Wisley, entitled ‘Plants for the Future’, which brought together plant breeders, product developers, growers, national collection holders, plant licensing companies and other enthusiasts, all with the common interest of NEW PLANTS! The knowledge and skills in that room were quite phenomenal. I was asked to be on the panel too!

We had ‘cream of the crop’ speakers too, first up was Simon Crawford, who I admire for his horticultural networking, knowledge and eye for new plants.

His talk covered ‘breeding for the garden’, and interestingly explored the fact that plant breeding should give the home gardener a basket of options, not necessarily telling the gardener how to use a plant specifically.

He felt that the main important attributes were: visual impact, fragrance, sound (which is broader than you first imagine, such as the noise of bees…

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A mine of information

Mark Spencer uses an evocative phrase when describing the research potential of the Herbarium at the Natural History Museum – he refers to mining for information – and when you see the size of the collection it becomes an exact term for what is needed.  Mark had entranced the Surrey group when he visited to talk about the collection and the return visit was arranged to see some of the wonders.

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Members of the Surrey group meet by the dinosaur

The Herbarium is housed in the Angela Marmot Centre for UK Biodiversity, part of the Darwin Centre in the new Cocoon extension at the Natural History Museum.

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Mark had laid out some specimens of rare Surrey wild plants, now found in fewer places due to agriculture and high nitrate pollution.

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Teucrium botrys, a specimen from Box Hill in Surrey, collected in 1875.

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Apparently Surrey has more than its fair share of botanists, so at this point Mark advised the potential collectors in the group that the most important information to record on a specimen is not the name of the plant, but the ‘where’ and the ‘when’ – the ‘what’ can always be added later.  You can’t get more specific than the label on this Persicaria

By the sink that runs from the Crown? Dunghill into the field? August 1755

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In the past chemicals such as mercuric chloride were used on the specimens to prevent damage from insects feeding on the fish or bone glue used to anchor the specimens.  Now temperature (17oC), humidity (40%) and freezing new material are used to limit insect problems, so there was a cool and clinical atmosphere in the herbarium stacks.

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This is the collection of Mentha and gives an indication of the vast number of specimens  held on this corridor of cabinets.

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Then we were taken to the historic heart of the herbarium, the Sir Hans Sloane Collection, housed under the curved roof of the Cocoon.

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Sloane (1660-1753) ‘amassed one of the greatest ever private collections of plants, animals, antiquities, coins and other curios and this became  the founding core of the British Museum and later the Natural History Museum’.

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Originally made up of over 110,000 items, many of the animal specimens were destroyed or dispersed to regional museums, but the botanical collection is more intact – his volume of Plants Gathered by Sir Hans Sloane in Jamaica

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The type specimen for Cocoa.

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Reverend Adam Buddle (1662–1715) an authority on bryophytes,  compiled a new English Flora, completed in 1708.  It was never published and is preserved at the NHM – here a page of mosses and liverworts.

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The Duchess of Beaufort’s Collections are particularly beautiful

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A wealthy lady, each plant is protected with its own paper cover

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The Dutch East India company was responsible for bringing many exotics back to Europe and the Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738) collection from Leiden was given to Sloane and is kept at the NHM.  The shaped labels – called Clifford pots after George Clifford are wonderfully ornate.

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The Croconuts in the group were delighted to see a specimen of Iris susiana

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There are also drawers full of specimens which are being catalogued by a PhD student – Sloane’s original numbers can still be seen on the boxes.

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The seams of information held in these collections have already provided data on the flowering times of plants, used as evidence of climate change and how the density of stoma on leaves is related to the concentration of CO2.

A truly engrossing visit – if you get the chance to visit don’t turn it down.  Thank you Mark for taking us into your world and showing us its wonders.

 

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